Antonin Dvorak

Artist: Antonin Dvorak 
Born:1841, Nelahozeves, Bohemia
Died:1904, Prague
Summary:Czech composer, whose influences include Brahms, Wagner and folk music from his nature land.
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Antonin Dvorak Biography

Antonín Dvořák.
Antonín Dvořák
Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Leopold Dvořák (September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of classical music.



Dvořák was born in Nelahozeves near Prague where he spent most of his life. He studied music in Prague's Organ School at the end of the 1850s, and through the 1860s played viola in the Bohemian Provisional Theatre Orchestra which was from 1866 conducted by Bedřich Smetana.

From 1892 to 1895, Dvořák was director of the National Conservatory in New York City. The Conservatory was founded by a wealthy socialite, Jeannette Thurber, who wanted a well-known composer as director in order to lend prestige to her institution. She wrote to Dvořák, asking him to accept the position, and he agreed, providing that she were willing to meet his conditions: that talented Native American and African-American students, who could not afford the tuition, must be admitted for free. She agreed to his conditions, and he sailed to America.

It was during his time as director of the Conservatory that Dvořák formed a friendship with Harry Burleigh, who became an important African-American composer. Dvořák taught Burleigh composition, and in return, Burleigh spent hours on end singing traditional American Spirituals to Dvořák. Burleigh went on to compose settings of these Spirituals which compare favorably with European classical composition.

It was during his visit to the United States that he wrote his most popular work, the Symphony No.9 'From the New World'.

Also while in the USA he heard a performance of a cello concerto by the composer Victor Herbert. He was so excited by the possibilities of the cello and orchestra combination displayed in this concerto that he wrote a cello concerto of his own, the Cello Concerto in B minor (1895). Since then the concerto he wrote has grown in popularity and today it is frequently performed. He also left an unfinished work, the Cello Concerto in A major (1865), which was completed and orchestrated by the German composer Günter Raphael between 1925 and 1929.

Dvořák was a colorful personality. In addition to music, there were two particular passions in his life: locomotive engines, and the breeding of pigeons.

He eventually returned to Prague where he was director of the conservatoire from 1901 until his death in 1904. He was interred in the Vysehrad cemetery in Prague.

Musical Style and Influence

Dvořák's works are in a variety of forms: his nine symphonies stick to classical models which Ludwig van Beethoven would have recognised and are comparable to Johannes Brahms, but he also worked in the newly developed symphonic poem form and the influence of Richard Wagner is apparent in some works. Many of his works also show the influence of Czech folk music, both in terms of rhythms and melodic shapes; perhaps the best known examples are the two sets of Slavonic Dances. As well as his already-mentioned works, Dvořák wrote operas (the best known of which is Rusalka), chamber music (including a number of string quartets, the American among them) and piano music.

Dvořák's works were catalogued by Jarmil Burghauser in Antonin Dvořák. Thematic Catalogue. Bibliography. Survey of Life and Work (Export Artia Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1960). In this catalogue, for example, the New World Symphony (Opus 95) is B178. 1 (

Dvořák's Symphonies

For a while, the numbering of Dvořák's symphonies was rather unclear; the 'New World' symphony has alternately been called the 5th, 8th and 9th. In this article they are numbered according to the order in which they were written (this is the normal numbering system used today). Dvořák himself numbered his 9th Symphony as 'number 5,' in a superstitious attempt to cheat the tendency for composers to die after composing their ninth symphonies. The trick did not work, and Dvořák died before completing a tenth.

Unlike many other composers who shied away from the symphony until their mature years (notably his mentor Johannes Brahms), Dvořák wrote his Symphony No. 1 in C minor when he was only 24 years of age. Subtitled The Bells of Zlonice after a village in Dvořák's native Bohemia, it is clearly the work of an inexperienced composer, yet shows a lot of promise. The scherzo is considered to be the strongest movement, but the others are not uninteresting. There are many formal similarities with the 5th Symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven, yet harmonically and in his instrumentation he is more a romantic composer, following Franz Schubert.

Not very remarkable, but not of low quality either, is Symphony No. 2 in B flat major, still looking up to Beethoven. But Symphony No. 3 in E flat major clearly shows the sudden and profound impact of Dvořák's recent acquaintance with the music of Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt.

The influence of Wagner was not lasting, however; it can hardly be heard anymore in Symphony No. 4 in D minor. This last of Dvořák's early symphonies is also widely regarded as the best. Again the scherzo is the highlight, but already Dvořák shows his absolute mastery of all formal aspects.

Dvořák's middle symphonies, Symphony No. 5 in F major (published as No. 3) and Symphony No. 6 in D major (published as No. 1), are happy, pastoral works. They are not as famous as their later cousins, though many consider them just as good. The Fifth is the more pastoral work, although there is a dark slow movement which borrows (or, rather, steals) the first four notes of Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto for the main theme. The Sixth shows a very strong resemblance to the Symphony No. 2 of Brahms, particularly the outer movements.

Symphony No. 7 in D minor of 1885 is the most Romantic era symphonies by the composer. The work draws inspiration from Brahms and Tchaikovsky reflecting in the political struggle in Prague. In that sense, it is an intensely patriotic work that balances intense calm with an underlying turmoil. The work, however, is not a programmatic work. The structure is the most ambiguous of his symphonies. The 7th could hardly be a starker contrast to Symphony No. 8 in G major (published as No. 4), a work which Karl Schumann (in booklet notes to a recording of all the symphonies by Rafael Kubelik) compares to Gustav Mahler. Together with his last symphony, these two are regarded as the peak of Dvořák's symphonic writing and among the finest symphonies of the 19th century.

By far the most popular, however, is Dvořák's Symphony No. 9 in E minor (published as No. 5), better known under its subtitle, From the New World. This was written shortly after Dvořák's arrival in America. At the time of its composition, Dvořák claimed that he used elements from American music such as Spirituals and Native American music in this work, but he later denied this. The first movement has a solo flute passage very reminiscent of Swing Low, Sweet Chariot, and one of his students later reported that the second movement depicted, programmatically, the sobbing of Hiawatha. The second movement was so reminiscent of a negro spiritual that lyrics were written for it and it became Goin' Home. Dvořák was interested in indigenous American music, but in an article published in the New York Herald on December 15, 1893, he wrote 'In the 9th symphony I have simply written original themes embodying the peculiarities of the Indian music.' It is generally accepted that the work has more in common with the folk music of Dvořák's native Bohemia than with American music.

Neil Armstrong took this symphony to the Moon during the Apollo 11 mission, the first Moon landing mission, in 1969.

Two of the most highly regarded recordings of these symphonies are the cycles by Rafael Kubelik and Libor Pešek.

See also

Further reading

  • John Clapham, Dvorak (David & Charles, 1979)

External links

This biography is published under the GNU Licence

Items to buy by Antonin Dvorak

Song to the Moon from Rusalka "By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Roger Nichols. For soprano voice solo and piano accompaniment. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium-difficult. Single piece. Vocal melody, lyrics, piano accompaniment and introductory text. 8 pages. Published by E

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"Four Romantic Pieces For Violin And Piano, Op. 75" (Violin and Piano). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Rok Klopcic. For violin and piano accompaniment (Violin). String Solo. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium. Set of performance parts (includes separate pull-out violin part). 16 pages. G. Schir

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Goin' Home "(From the Largo of the Symphony ""from the New World,"" Op. 95). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Arranged by William Arms Fisher. For Low Voice, Piano. Classical. Piano reduction/vocal score. Standard notation. Composed JULY 20 1922. Opus 95. 5 pages. Pub

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"Concerto in B minor, Opus 104" By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Leonard Rose. For cello and piano accompaniment. Classical Period. Difficulty: difficult. Instrumental solo book. Bowings and fingerings. Composed 1894-95. 63 pages. Published by International Music Company

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"Dvorak, Glazunov and Tchaikovsky String Quartets" "(Score and Parts). By Alexander Glazunov (1865-1936), Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), and Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893). CD Sheet Music. CD-ROM. 8 pages. Published by CD Sheet Music"

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"Quartet No. 12 in F major, Opus 96 ('American')" "(PAGANINI QUARTET). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). For string quartet (2 violins, viola, cello). Classical Period. Difficulty: difficult. Set of performance parts. Bowings and fingerings. Composed 1893. 44 pages. Published by International Music Company"

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"Complete Slavonic Dances - Piano, Four Hands" "By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). For piano four-hands. Piano Duet (1 Piano, 4 Hands). Dover Edition. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium-difficult. Collection. Standard notation and introductory text. 129 pages. Published by Dover Publications"

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"Trio in E minor, Opus 90 - 'Dumky'" "By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). For violin, cello and piano. Classical Period. Difficulty: difficult. Set of performance parts. Bowings. Composed 1891. 68 pages. Published by International Music Company"

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Dumky Piano Trio Op. 90 "(for Violin, Cello and Piano). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Klaus Doge. Piano Trios. Henle Music Folios. Softcover. 88 pages. G. Henle Verlag #HN799. Published by G. Henle Verlag"

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Goin' Home (From the Largo of the New World Symphony). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Arranged by William Arms Fisher. For medium voice and piano. Classical Period. Piano/Vocal Score. Standard notation. Opus 95. 5 pages. Published by Theodore Presser Company

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"Biblical Songs, Op.99 - Low Voice" "(Low Voice). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). For low voice and piano (Low Voice). Vocal Collection. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium. Collection. Vocal melody, lyrics and piano accompaniment. 36 pages. G. Schirmer #LB1825. Published by G. Schirmer"

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"Sonatina, Op. 100 - Piano / Violin" (Violin and Piano). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Arranged by Rok Klopcic. For violin and piano (Violin). String Solo. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium. Set of performance parts (includes separate pull out violin part). Introductory text. 31 pages. G

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"Quintet in A major, Opus 81" "By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). For piano quintet (2 violins, viola, cello, piano). Classical Period. Difficulty: difficult. Set of performance parts. Bowings, fingerings and introductory text. Composed 1887. 107 pages. Published by International Music Co

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Hungarian and Slavonic Dances for String Quartet By Johannes Brahms; Antonin Dvorak. For string quartet. Instrumental Ensemble - Strings. Grade 4. Set of parts. Published by Latham Music Enterprises

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"Dvorak, Rimsky-Korsakov and More - Volume V (Violin)" (Complete Violin I and II Parts to 64 Orchestral Masterworks on CD-ROM). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904) and Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908). For violin I and violin II (Violin). The Orchestra Musician's CD-ROM Library. Classical. Difficulty

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"Gypsy Songs. A Cycle of 7 Songs, Opus 55 - High" By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Humphrey Proctor-Gregg. For high voice and piano (high voice). Language: German and English. Published by International Music Company

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Slavonic Dances Op. 46 "(1 Piano, 4 Hands). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Klaus Doge. For 1 piano, 4-hands. Piano, 4-hands, Piano Duets. Henle Music Folios. Pages: IX and 92. SMP Level 8 (Early Advanced). Softcover. 100 pages. G. Henle Verlag #HN757. Published by G.

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Songs My Mother Taught Me By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Arranged by Fritz Kreisler. For violin and piano. Classical Period and 20th Century. Set of performance parts. Bowings and fingerings. 6 pages. Published by Carl Fischer

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"Concerto in A minor, Op. 53" By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Edited by Ivan Galamanian. For violin and piano. Published by International Music Company

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"Romance, Op. 11 - Piano/Violin" (Violin and Piano). By Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Arranged by Rok Klopcic. For violin and piano (Violin). String Solo. Classical Period. Difficulty: medium. Set of performance parts (includes separate pull out violin part). Introductory text. 14 pages. G

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